Темпус: Кандидат наук і PhD – подібне, але не теж саме

Candidate of Sciences is granted (similar, but not equivalent to a (PhD degree).

Саме так стверджує звіт Темпуса про вищу освіту в Україні.

Взагалі це дуже цікавий документ, з точки зору користі при поясненні системи освіти в Україні іноземцям (особливо коли йдеться про терміни).

А ще мене вразило, що

13. University-enterprise cooperation
As prescribed by the Law of Ukraine on Higher Education, representatives of employers (as
customers of educational services) are members of Academic Boards.

To provide support to students in finding employment, some HEIs create careers centres in cooperation enterprises in order to provide placement programmes.

The Law of Ukraine on granting first jobs to young people with a HE degree, with provision of subsidies to employers, was adopted in 2004.
HEIs cooperate with branch and factory research. According to the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, Ukrainian enterprises spend 1.2% of their total expenditure on research.

І ще цікава інформація: порівняння аспірантур у різних країнах-сусідах Европейського союзу.

Основними перешкодами якісної підготовки Темпус виділяє такі:

• the lack of financial and human resources that make up the system:
− the lack of funding for doctoral programmes, impacts on access to advanced
scientific equipment and documentation, that reduces the ambition and scope
of the research and may lead to poor quality research;
− the lack of human resources leading to doctoral work being inadequately
supervised;
• academic fraud and corruption, a sensitive issue that jeopardizes the quality
of higher education and doctoral education. In particular:
− most of the 23 countries face serious corruption problems that affect the
functioning of the public sector in general. An illustration, corroborated by
scientific and policy papers, is the very low rank of EU neighbouring countries
in the Corruption Perception Index. The situation is critical particularly in
Eastern European countries and Caucasus that are at the very bottom of the
ranking (see Appendix I , Exhibit 28);
− among the phenomena observed during investigation and through literature
review, are the bought diplomas in Eastern European countries “Dissertation
for sale” false diplomas or the lack of transparency in selection procedures
for doctoral positions;
The impacts of fraud and corruption practices are twofold: it affects the international
recognition of diplomas (e.g. Eastern European Aspirantura programmes and
Kandidat Nauk title) and also puts into question the value of diplomas abroad.

Крім того Україна входить до кластеру “закритих” країн із низьким рівнем зовнішніх вступників в аспірантуру і виїздом студентів для аспірантури закордоном

А ще там є чудові поради і виклики:

Additional efforts still need to be made by policy makers involved in the development
and enhancement research and higher education policy.
• The lack of funding directly impacts on the quality of research equipment and
research infrastructure to finally affect the quality of the research produced.
Funding is insufficient for:
− doctoral candidates : limited number of grants and reduced amount of
scholarships force candidates to take up work simply in order to subsidise
their studies. They only devote part of their time to research;
− doctoral candidates’ research which leads to reduced ambitions and
scope of the research conducted and put at stake the very def inition of a
doctoral programme (original research);
− funding for doctoral programmes : limited human resources dedicated to
supervision, administration, relevant teaching, etc.
The current level of spending in research as a whole is insufficient and hinders the
sound development of doctoral programmes.

Reach critical mass: in line with the scarce resources available and the nature
of scientific work (exchanging and sharing ideas to build new ones), the challenge
is to develop doctoral programmes through gathering existing resources,
infrastructures and knowledge from different actors that are not necessarily
involved enough in doctoral research. Research organisations, public and private
HEI should rather team up than compete.
• Quality assurance: A particular challenge relates to the development and
enforcement of quality assurance mechanisms. Many of the countries in this study
have taken considerable steps to develop quality assurance mechanisms, but still
have a long way to go when it comes to implementing them. Even more
importantly, there is a lot of work still to be done in initiating existing teaching
staff and HEI authorities into a culture of quality assurance and evaluation. The
poor quality of some of the research conducted, the corruption and forg ery
practices affect the value of diplomas. This phenomenon affects the international
recognition of curricula as well as society as a whole.
The supervision resources and practices must also evolve to cope with the
demographic problem linked to the ageing population of mentors.
Finally, authorities in charge of the organisation of doctoral programmes must
also be made aware of the need to develop monitoring systems enabling the
collection of statistical data about the detailed characteristics of the doctoral
candidate population. This would significantly contribute to the development of
policy frameworks able to respond to existing needs and realities.
• Relationships with Industry : the employability and access to labour market
(apart from academic careers) remain an exception rather than a rule. There are
huge gaps between the labour market and national economic need and the types of
doctoral programmes being developed. As a result, labour market and economic
actors do not take any interest in the development of doctoral programmes, and
doctoral programmes are not contributing to the development of labour market
actors.

http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/participating_countries/reviews/ukraine_review_of_higher_education.pdf

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